I'm not sure if this will work for your setup, but maybe it can be a first step.
First, I joined the data set to itself in order to get all combinations of Athletes.
Then, I flagged the benchmark atheletes in the duplicate set:
IF [Rank (Sheet1$1)]=1 OR [Rank (Sheet1$1)]=3 OR [Rank (Sheet1$1)]=8
THEN [Athelete (Sheet1$1)]
Then, I created a filter to get the benchmarks or the selected:
OR [Athelete]=[Athelete (Sheet1$1)]
Then I placed the Duplicate [Date...$1] on Columns,
[Timing...$1] on Rows,
[Athelete...$1] on Color,
and ATTR([Athelete]) on the Detail shelf.
To get the labels, I used a dual axis of Text.