You can pivot your data in excel and copy pivot data in blank sheet then connect the file in tableau that will be more esier for your further calculations.
In tableau without pivot it'll be like this. As per your file there are two sheets. One is "Data" and second is "Information".
You should use blending to join with other data sources. Just like join in database. You should have some common unique fields in both the data sources. So that you can join. In tableau its called blending which is left outer join in nature. To get the desired output you've do some exercise. First find out those common columns which will be yours blending keys. Then from data menu go to to edit relations and use custom to add the joining conditions. See the screen shots. As per my understanding I've selected few columns. Don't forget to join the chain in data pane. For more information about blending you can refer below link.
I've attached the workbook (version 9.2) for your reference. Have a look and let me know If you've any query.
Blending.twbx 15.6 KB