Tableau Desktop in conjunction with Tableau Server has the ability to filter data based on the user logged into Tableau Server with user filters. The following resources describe more details about the methods in which user filtering can be implemented:
User Functions (These functions can be used in calculated fields to further customize how the view shows data based on the logged-in user)
Tableau Server also allows users to set up refresh schedules for data extracts, and allows users to subscribe to views.
I hope this answers your questions!