Although somewhat pricier than Desktop, Tableau Server is a great at this.
We use the server views wrapped in a wrapper to make a "portal" where anyone can access their dashboards, without the fluff, updated on a regular basis.
I know this isn't an option for everyone, but it definitely helps the sharing!
Echoing Derrick here, but what you are describing is either Tableau Server, or Tableau Online (I prefer/use the former).
It is a little more expensive, but you get a lot of benefit from it, such as having users to access content, scheduling content to be updated, access to the JS API, additional security, etc.
Hope this helps,
Another option is Tableau Online, which is essentially the same as Tableau Server only it is hosted and maintained by Tableau, so there is no need for installation or in-house server experts. We're using this option and have found the licensing very reasonable ($500 per user per year). It's a great solution for us.
We've recently started using Tableau Server instead of distributing workbooks with Tableau Reader. The Server gets great reviews from users interacting with it. They find it much simpler to interact with, they don't need to worry about downloading their own reader software, all of their viz's are in one place, and it's far easier to manage viz distributions than trying to keep up with things using the Reader. Server was designed to make sharing simple, and it does that well. I'd highly recommend utilizing Server if you are having challenges sharing workbooks.