The Backgrounder process executes server tasks including extract refreshes. However many backgrounder processes running on the server is however many extracts can run in parallel. Check out this knowledge article Tableau Server Processes
A single-threaded process where multiple processes can be run on any or all machines in the cluster to expand capacity. The backgrounder normally doesn’t consume much process memory, but it can consume CPU, I/O, or network resources based on the nature of the workload presented to it. For example, performing large extract refreshes can use network bandwidth to retrieve data. CPU resources can be consumed by data retrieval or complex tabcmd tasks.
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The backgrounder is a single-threaded process, i.e. it can only run one task at a time. Therefore, you are limited by the number of backgrounder processes configured in your Tableau Server. So if you have 4 backgrounder processes configured in Tableau server, up to 4 background tasks can run in parallel. With that said, don't go and add 20 backgrounder processes to your server as it will degrade performance. The rule of thumb for number of backgrounder process is N/2 where N = number of physical cores in your Windows server hosting the backgrounder process; keep in mind Tableau ignores hyperthreading and virtual cores. Here's how to determine how many physical cores your server has: