It looks like you Tableau Server machine is having issues actually establishing a connection. I would first ensure that the SSAS drivers are installed on the machine hosting Tableau Server. If they are, I would then install Tableau Desktop on this same machine and see if it can open the workbook you were trying to publish. If the same error is thrown in Tableau Desktop from the machine hosting Tableau Server, this points to a network issue between Tableau Server and your database.
If Tableau Desktop on the machine hosting Tableau Server works just fine, please do contact our support team at firstname.lastname@example.org