What's happening here is that the filter is not being applied to the view, but rather to the underlying data set that populates the view. The customers don't show up because the query used to get the data is only pulling customers that have built decks in 2014. A temporary workaround is to hide the 2012 and 2013 columns instead of filtering them.
My desired endpoint is to have the list of all the 0 deck creators as one set to use as a filter so hiding the other columns doesn't solve for my goal. I'm thinking I may need to create a formula based filter instead...
If you can post a sample packaged workbook, I'll be happy to take a look -- your ZN(LOOKUP...) calculation--that I assume is being used to show the 0 values--is a table calculation, which is applied later in the Tableau pipeline. I believe if we make your Year filter a similar Table Calc filter, it may resolve your issue (but can't remember for sure). But a packaged workbook example will allow us to test things out for you.