You are essentially talking about changing the level of detail, which can be done with a parameter, but not a filter.
The workaround I typically suggest to accomplish this is to employ the "swap views using parameter" method.
You may find this thread helpful for reference.
Sylvia: Attached is an example I've made for someone else that shows a parameter that changes the level of detail. Note that in this example the month and day options look the same because the data source used only has one date for each month. See the sheet named "Parameterized"
Dates Tableau ML.twbx.zip 171.2 KB