Check out Jonathan's Examples and tutorials, including his Conditional Formatting workbook, which provides all kinds of formatting examples to study:
If you have a specific problem you are trying to solve, and some sample data that you can upload in a packaged workbook (or create an example using sample data provided), forum members would be happy to help you figure out how to build a solution that will work for your scenario.
Matthew - Thank you for the 'crosstab of many colors' links. That is a good work around. A downside is there appears to be no way to add a filter to the worksheet that allows the user to select which columns / measures to show. For instance, a check all that apply filter or parameter that would allow the user to show only columns for Margin, Sales, Inventory, and Profit Margin; or only Budget Sales and Inventory; and so on.
If any one sees a way to do this, I would welcome the tip!
Yeah, that would be difficult using that setup--but I am not sure if its impossible. I'd suggest posting a new forum question/thread, with a packaged workbook demonstrating what your data looks like, as well as a description of what you'd like to do. Nearly anything is possible in Tableau; we just sometimes need help getting there. There are a lot of gurus who help on this forum, and one of them can probably help you get what you need if you have a clear vision of what you want and some sample data for them to play with.