Currently there is no ability to directly connect to Active Directory Federated Services, although active directory is supported.
It is possible to configure multiple domains to authenticate users on Tableau Server.
When using multiple domains there are a few requirements:
1. As noted two way trust between domains is required. You can get by with a more restrictive relationship here, but it will be up to your internal AD administrators to discover what level of permissiveness allows this to work.
2. When adding users from the domain Tableau Server is attached to, just the username can be used, however if the username is on the other non-native domain, the username will need to be added with the fully qualified domain name. This user will also need to enter their username with the FQDN to authenticate to Tableau Server.
3. If using trusted tickets, the request for a trusted ticket will now require the username to include the FQDN the same way as when they are logging into Tableau Server.
For information on configuring multiple domains, please review Server Online Admin Guide:
Tableau Server Administrator Guide: