It sounds like the issue you're trying to address is how Tableau Server can be a solution for providing external clients access to reports, potentially all from the same data source.
I'd encourage you to look at several things Tableau offers in this area:
- Multi-tenancy: Walled off sections of Tableau Server for different clients. Tableau calls these Sites.
- Trusted Authentication: If you already have a website that handles authentication and content management and are interested in embedding Tableau Server visualizations into that site and have Tableau Server work with your website's authentication - you'll want to look at leveraging our Trusted Authentication solution.
- User Filters: For the actual process of how a single object (dashboard, report, etc.) can dynamically show different cuts of data depending on who is connecting to it, I encourage you to take a look at how Tableau does works with User Filters.
I hope these resources help answer your question. Please feel free to let me know if I can be of additional assistance.