That's a strange problem, and I encourage you to contact support so they can help you collect logs and investigate the problem. Please mention that Robert Morton is interested in seeing the information that is collected.
In the meantime, could you try creating a Data Extract and then publishing to Server? This may allow you to continue with your work while the problem is being investigated.
Sorry for the delayed response to this issue but I just came across this while searching for something else. I believe the problem is that Cosimo is trying to connect to a local SAS ODBC session from Tableau Server. Not gonna happen.
When Tableau (or Excel, etc) accesses a local SAS dataset defined through ODBC it actually kicks off a local SAS session using PROC ODBCSERV -- you can see SAS startup a minimized session. This is how SAS serves up the SAS Libraries you defined in the ODBC configuration. It is all local. Once the Tableau workbook is published to the server then you lose that direct connection to SAS. That's why I always recommend our users create a Data Extract from the SAS datasets, as Robert suggested.
If you want to connect directly to SAS from Tableau Server then you will need to configure a remote SAS/SHARE server. You would then build your Tableau workbook against the datasets via SAS/SHARE server and ensure the Tableau Server can also connect to it.