It should be possible. If you anything specific please post .twbx file.
If that helps please mark the answer as helpful and correct.
See below image, Here I have used Both Category and Sub category with Sales Value and kept category in Filter in sheet 1.
Now see below Image, I have created another sheet 2, where I have used only sub category but kept category in Filter shelf.
Now create a dashboard like below image.
Right Click on Category filter--> Apply to Worksheet--> Selected Worksheet.
ThenIt will give you one window where You need to choose a sheet where you want to see effect of category filter. Please take a below image for your reference.
Check In all sheet name where you want to see effect of that filter.
It will work now.
Please let me know if you have any question on this.
Please mark correct and helpful if it works for you
Thank you for your extensive reply. I will test it out as soon as I can...!
I already have one question: in your example you have used the Subcategory as filter to filter on Sheet 1. But in my dashboard I have made a calculated field (which is then added as an extra column in the data source) and I then use this field to filter. Is that the same according to you?