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With your multi-node setup proposal, I am imagining you are going to have a gateway on the primary as well as the nodes. With this, are you planning on having a load balancer with different IP/URLs for the different Geographical Locals (ie: TableauUS going to the US gateway, TableauEU going to the EU gateway, etc.)
Even with doing that though, it is not recommended to have nodes across geographically dispersed data centers as it can cause considerable issues. This is from the Tableau Distributed Requirements page: Distributed Requirements
Distributed deployment across data centers: We do not recommend installing Tableau Server nodes across distributed data centers. The following examples describe some issues that are common when nodes are distributed between multiple data centers:
- Disruption in network connectivity between nodes can cause many tasks to fail or for Tableau Server components to become unlicensed.
- Proxies and firewalls between data centers may impede the ability of the Tableau Server nodes to communicate with each other.
- Routing traffic between geographically dispersed data centers, can cause latency or bottleneck data transmission, resulting in poor performance and connection timeouts.
With installing 3 separate servers, you would run into the issue of needing multiple server licenses for the 3 production machines which would increase overall cost considerably. The problem as you mentioned above, is keeping them in sync. Depending on your requirements, it may be possible to have a "Publishing Server" where you publish all of your workbooks to and then have the other servers refresh to this version at Midnight (or on a schedule). We do something similar to keep our TEST Machine in sync with Production (via scripting) but it would not be an 'ideal' solution. Interested to see what other ideas people have though. Are you planning on hosting this on your own Farm or going through a 3rd party provider.