You're going to have to think outside the box a little on this one.
You can't show or hide columns based on a filter selection, BUT you can "swap and pop" visualizations on a dashboard using a parameter! The idea is that you have 2 separate visualizations, one with 5 columns and one with 7 columns. The parameter selection drives which viz appears in the dashboard.
Start with this link and search the forums for more details. It's a cool technique and the author(s) are on the forums all the time if you need help!