You won't be able to completely reproduce this chart because Tableau doesn't have the necessary formatting options (thankfully, if you ask me).
However, to point you in the right direction (which is all I can do without a packaged workbook), you can try putting the measures included in the two line graphs into Measure Names/Values and putting Measure Values up on the row shelf. Drop Measure Names onto one of the marks and you'll get the two line graphs. However, I don't think you'll be able to get both a line graph and the circles/diamonds simultaneously.
Then, put the measure for the bar chart onto the row shelf next to it. Right-click it and enable Dual Axis. This will put the bar charts and the line charts on the same axis.
Yes. I would assume that's the max you can go and I am sure it does convey the same value of information as what your earlier graph carried.
The only suggestion could be instead of line graphs use shapes as that could be closest to what you want.
I don't think there's a way to get both the circles/diamonds and the line chart, unfortunately. But maybe someone else will have a better idea.