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The blog post does say it will work with Tableau Online: http://www.tableau.com/about/blog/2013/11/embedding-sales-analytics-salesforce-canvas-25699
The above link has good info as well as comments from users.
Also see details here: Salesforce Canvas Adapter for Tableau | Tableau Software
In the documentation, "Tableau Server" is often used interchangeably with "Tableau Online," because Tableau Online *is* Tableau Server, just hosted in the cloud by Tableau, instead of on premise by the customer. Of course, there are some differences in the two experiences, but for the end user, it is mostly the same. So I'd recommend just following the instructions in the documentation; they will work for both Tableau Online and Server.
You'd want to use the documentation for Tableau Server, with one exception: don't set up the trusted tickets settings on for the Sparkler adapter. Your users will have to enter their Online credentials to access the views, but they'll be embedded in Salesforce.