Are you seeing this error from only one machine or multiple machines? Are you able to publish a sample workbook to Tableau Public instead of your Server?
Please make sure that that you at least have Internet Explorer 7 installed on this machine. If you have older versions of IE, it's not uncommon to see problems publishing to Tableau Server from Tableau Desktop as we use a component of IE called "WinInet", and that component must be relatively new. You must have at least IE7.