Here's a workbook using your data that demonstrates one way to accomplish it. I used the table calculation Last() to find the last date and filter. I've provided a little more detail in the workbook. Please let me know if you have any questions.
Also, if your interested in learning more about table calcs, here's a great knowledge base article: http://kb.tableausoftware.com/articles/knowledgebase/table-calculations
Latest Date.twbx.zip 14.2 KB
made some adjustments to the final data but it looks to have worked... thanks!