I believe that you can. You just have to create and save the live connection using another sheet or workbook, and then in the workbook connected to Tableau Data Server use Data -> Replace Data Source... menu item (in Tableau Desktop) to switch to that data source, when you need to.
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Absolutely you can. In Tableau 6.1, just uncheck "Use Extract" in the Data Menu.
In Tableau 7, the "Use Extract" is checked or unchecked under Data -> <Data Connection Name> .
I cycle between extracted and live fairly frequently, and have not had any major issues other than annoying my DBA's.
Ken, your approach will not work for workbooks connected to Tableau Data Server published extracts. Although Tableau extract is being used in those cases, it is via a live connection to that extract.
You can make the local "extract of an extract", and then your method will work, but I think Emma is describing the situation where the workbook is connected to an extract published to the server. If that is the case, then there is no option to stop using the extract, as screenshot shows.
Fair enough, although it would still be possible -- albeit not easy or fun -- to revert a working Workbook back to a live connection. Maybe the easier route would be to make two different copies of the .twb (one on Live, one on the Published Extract) and only Publish one of the Workbooks for the users to use.
I would recommend this approach: create at least two workbooks - one would contain a live connection to data and no views, and will be used to publish an extract to Data Server. The other workbook would connect to that published extract, and would contain all the views. You can also add other workbooks like the second one, which will share the same published extract. The first workbook is kept purely for managing the shared extract, i.e. if you need to make changes to the extract - use this first workbook and re-publish the extract.