Whichever fonts that are on your machine should be able to be recognized by Tableau. One thing to try is to make sure to close Tableau Desktop and relaunch it AFTER the fonts have been installed on the machine. Hope this helps!
The list of fonts in a Tableau drop down list will not necessarily list all the fonts on the machine. If yours doesn't appear, you can just type the name of the font in the box and Tableau will use it.
I believe we only list fonts we know about and have checked that they work in Desktop.
I discovered this feature when doing my crazy and overly complicated sparkcharts-in-tooltips work: