Welcome to the Community. You've opened up a very interesting question.
You could try the following thread, the result of a high-powered collaboration earlier this year between some of our most senior Community members: Metadata Automation.
It would be great if you could let us know whether the thread helps, and certainly feel free to switch over to that location and continue the narrative there.
Lineage requires the Data Management Add-on. Starting in 2019.3, Tableau Catalog is available in the Data Management Add-on to Tableau Online and Tableau Server. When Tableau Catalog is enabled in your environment, you have access to lineage for your data sources, flows, databases, and tables.
It is recommended to reach out to your Tableau Sales Rep who can quote you on adding this functionality as it is a per user price and requires an extra Tableau Server key to enable these features.